Bruce Lee

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Bruce J. (Junfan) Lee (November 27 1940July 20, 1973) was a Chinese American martial artist and martial arts actor who is widely regarded as one of the most influential martial artists of the 20th century. Lee's movies, especially his performance in the Hollywood-produced Enter the Dragon, elevated the traditional Hong Kong martial arts film to a new level of popularity, paving the way for future martial artists and martial arts actors such as Jackie Chan, Jet Li, and Chuck Norris. Bruce Lee sparked the first major surge of interest in Chinese martial arts in the West. The direction and tone of Bruce Lee's movies have forever changed and influenced martial arts and martial arts films in Hong Kong, China, and the rest of the world.

Although he made only a handful of films and television shows, Bruce Lee has become an iconic figure as a personification of a Asian man who became the epitome of what many see as the mental and physical perfection in martial arts, fitness, and health.

Contents

Early Life

Bruce Lee was born at the Chinese Hospital[1] in San Francisco to his Chinese father, Lee Hoi-Chuen and mother Grace Lee.

Names

Lee's Cantonese name, Lee Jun Fan, literally means "invigorate San Francisco," paying homage to the Chinese name of his birthplace, San Francisco, California. At birth, Lee was given the English name "Bruce" by nurses at the hospital[2], a name he retained.

In addition, Lee intially had a birth name given by his mother, as at the time Lee's father was away on a Chinese opera tour. After several months, when Lee's father returned, the name was abandoned because of a conflict with the name of Lee's grandfather — in Chinese culture, it is considered a taboo to give a child a name that is the same as an ancestor's. Lee was then renamed Jun Fan. Finally, Lee was also given a feminine name, Sai Feng (literally, "Slender Phœnix"), used throughout his early childhood in keeping with a Chinese custom traditionally thought to hide the child from evil spirits.

Education and Martial Arts Training

He received his early education and Kung Fu training in Hong Kong. Because of his father's fame as a Chinese opera actor, Lee had the opportunity to appear in several Chinese movies as a child. He studied the Wing Chun style of martial arts at a young age and picked up the languages of English, Cantonese, and Mandarin.

Bruce Lee's screen name was Lee Siu Lung (in Cantonese) and Li Xiao Long (in Mandarin) which literally means "Lee Little Dragon." These were first used by the director of the 1950 Cantonese movie in which Lee performed.

In 1958, Lee was the Cha Cha Champion of Hong Kong. He worked part time as a Cha Cha instructor for a short time when he returned to San Francisco in April 1959.

Marriage and family

In 1959, Bruce Lee went to Seattle, to complete his high school education. He received his diploma from Edison Technical School and enrolled at the University of Washington as a Philosophy major. It was at the University of Washington that he met his future wife, Linda Emery, whom he would marry in 1964. Lee had two children- a daughter, Shannon, and a son, actor Brandon Lee, who was tragically killed during a film set accident.

Early acting career

A few credits short of graduation from the University of Washington, Bruce Lee headed to San Francisco and then Hollywood.

In 1964 at a demonstration in Long Beach, California, the soon-to-be-famous Lee met karate black belt champion Chuck Norris. Lee would later introduce Norris to portray one of Lee's opponents in Return of the Dragon, aka Way of the Dragon, in a famous Colosseum fight scene widely regarded as the best martial arts fight ever filmed.

But while Bruce Lee and Chuck Norris were publicly friendly, contrary to what many, including Norris himself states, they were not close friends. Bruce Lee had repeatedly humiliated Chuck Norris during a mock sparring session in the hotel hallway at the Long Beach International Karate Championships in 1964, and Norris had offended Lee when he publicly claimed to be a better fighter than Lee.

When word got back to Lee, he called Norris and openly challenged him, threatening to drive to his martial arts dojo to fight. Norris was teaching his black belt class at that time. According to eye witnesses, Lee made Norris hold the phone receiver up and shout in front of his black belts, "Bruce Lee is a better fighter than me!" Later, Norris wrote an apologetic letter to Lee; the original letter is currently in the care of Lee's student, Dan Inosanto. Yet despite these conflicts, the two managed to set aside any differences in pursuit of their mutual film aspirations and develop a friendly public persona toward one another.

Lee went on to star as Kato in the TV series The Green Hornet, which ran from 1966 to 1967 and afterward opened up his own Jeet Kune Do school. Later Lee would use filmmaking to prove and to demonstrate his fighting theories.

Success in Hong Kong

In 1971, unable to find acting roles and faced with stereotypes regarding Asian actors, Lee returned to Hong Kong with his family. There, he starred in martial arts movies, earning $30,000 for his first two feature films, cementing his fame.

Martial Arts Training and Development

Bruce Lee's revolutionary break from traditional martial arts doctrines is nowadays seen as the first step into the modern style of mixed martial arts.

Wing Chun

Main article: Wing Chun

Bruce Lee began his formal martial arts training at a young age in Wing Chun style of Kung Fu under Hong Kong Wing Chun master Yip Man. Like most martial arts schools at that time, Yip Man's classes were often taught by the highest ranking student. The highest ranked student under Yip Man at the time of Lee's training was Wong Shun Leung.

Bruce Lee's first formal, organized bout came as a teenager at his Catholic school in Hong Kong. He was to fight a young British boxer, a reigning two-time boxing champion. Bruce knocked his opponent out with repeated strikes, using the Wing Chun jik chung chuy.

Jeet Kune Do

Main article: Jeet Kune Do

It would not be until his arrival in the United States, however, that Lee began the process of creating his own style, which he would later teach at the martial arts schools he opened first in Seattle starting with judo practitioner Jesse Glover as his first student who later became his first assistant instructor, and the first person authorized by Lee to teach aspects of Bruce Lee's gung-fu, and then in Oakland and Los Angeles, California (named the Lee Jun Fan Gung Fu Institute). After becoming dissatisfied with existing schools of martial arts, he later modified his martial arts style, which consisted mostly of elements of Wing Chun, with elements of Western Boxing, Fencing, and other martial arts and named it Jun Fan Gung Fu. Lee expanded this style over time, including elements from Muay Thai, Indo-Malay Silat, Panantukan, Sikaran, Bando, Catch Wrestling, Karate, Judo, Jujitsu, Aikido, and other martial arts styles. It would be much later that he would come to describe his style as Jeet Kune Do or the Way of the Intercepting Fist, a term he would later regret because Jeet Kune Do implied a style.

The reason why Bruce Lee later regretted giving a name to his fighting style, Jeet Kune Do was because Lee believed it made it a single "martial art style" and therefore had limitations. Instead Bruce Lee calls his fighting style, the style of no style, or the art of fighting without fighting which implies no limitations. Lee saw loyalty to a particular martial arts style as having limitations. This and Lee's other ideas about martial arts and his teaching of Chinese martial arts to non-Asian students gave Lee many enemies in the martial arts community, culminating in many challenges by other martial artists which Bruce Lee poignantly answered.

Beyond Jeet Kune Do

It took a violent confrontation to start Bruce Lee's adaptation of his art. Bruce's widow had said that he was issued a challenge by Chinese elders in the region in response to his teaching "secrets" martial art techniques to westerners. However, it may have been more likely that Bruce was challenged because he was new in town and was very harshed on current methods of teaching martial arts - supporting this view is the fact that Chinese Gung Fu had been taught to westerners for decades before Lee's own birth.

A contest was scheduled between him and another popular martial artist in the area to settle the dispute. The popular take on that fight was that the fight lasted a total of three rounds, most of which consisted of Lee chasing the man around the room until finally submitting him.

The instructor who fought Bruce was Wong Jack Man, a practitioner Mantis Kung Fu. According Michael Dorgan, writing in Official Karate, in the July 1980 issue, the numbers of people who attended the fight ranged from 8 to 13. Wong remembered the fight as being more than 20 minutes and he was on the defensive and Bruce Lee was the aggressor. Most accounts of the fight have Lee being the better fighter that day.

Although he had won, Bruce was forlorn, thinking that the fight had taken too long and that he had failed to live up to himself. At this point he decided to start training hard: weights for strength, running for endurance, stretching for flexibility, plus many other methods of training, which he constantly adapted as he grew as a martial artist.

During this time Lee developed his own combat techniques, while flaunting the infamous one inch punch, of Wing Chun, which he demonstrated during a Karate tournament at Long Beach - initially passed off as his own invention, Lee's rendition of the one inch punch is recognized as being flawed, both in execution and situational use.

Prior to his death, Lee told his then only two living instructors, Dan Inosanto and Taky Kimura (James Yimm Lee had passed away in 1972), to dismantle his schools. He no longer wished to call his art Jeet Kune Do or have his students associate what they were learning as Bruce Lee's style. His last wish was that Dan Inosanto never use the name JKD or Jeet Kune Do again. Though there are many who claim to teach Jeet Kune Do around the globe, Inosanto, following Lee's request, still refers to the Bruce Lee curriculum taught at his school as Jun Fan Gung Fu.

Perhaps a reason for Lee himself later regretting even giving a name to his philosophy/fighting style was that it became just another "martial art style." Lee saw loyalty to a particular martial arts style as having limitations. This and Lee's other ideas about teaching martial arts made him many enemies in the martial arts community of the 1960s/70s.

There were three certified instructors: Dan Inosanto received the highest certification in Lee's art (a notable exception is Taky Kimura, senior most instructor in Jun Fan Gung Fu) and is widely regarded as the most senior JKD instructor. All other instructors (again except Taky Kimura and the late James Yimm Lee [no relation to Bruce Lee]) are certified under Inosanto, even Bruce's other original students. Kimura, to date, has certified only one person in Jun Fan Gung Fu, his son and heir, Andy Kimura. James Yimm Lee, a close friend of Lee's, never certified anyone before his untimely death. Inosanto often serves not only as the leading instructor and historian of Jeet Kune Do Concepts; he also teaches and practices other styles such as Kali, Silat, Muay Thai, and Brazilian Jujitsu, some of which were already incorporated into the Jun Fan Gung Fu system.

Physical Training, Fitness, and Nutrition

Bruce Lee cared deeply about his physical fitness and tracked the evolution of his training in personal notes and diary, which have been recollected and published in The Bruce Lee Library by John Little, a "martial arts historian" from The Bruce Lee Estate. Lee typically exhibited a very lean and muscular appearance in his films, particularly in his upper body. Bruce Lee felt many martial artists of his day lacked the necessary physical fitness to back up their skill. In his book Tao of Jeet Kune Do, he wrote "Training is one of the most neglected phases of athletics. Too much time is given to the development of skill and too little to the development of the individual for participation."

Bruce Lee used every known technique and resource in aiding his physical fitness, including the use of electric current as an aid to strength training. However, his muscle stimulator was only one of many pieces of equipment and exercise routines Lee used to achieve his on-screen physical appearance.

The weight training program Lee used during a stay in Hong Kong in 1965, indicated bicep curls of 80 pounds and 8 repetitions[3] for endurance. This translates to an estimated one-repetition-maximum of 110 pounds[4], placing Lee in approximately the 100th percentile for the 121 to 140 pound weight class[5].

Of all the muscles Bruce Lee developed, his abdominal muscles were among the strongest: rock solid, deeply cut, and highly defined. Lee believed the abdominals muscles were one of the most important muscle groups for a martial artist since virtually every movement requires some degree of abdominal work. Perhaps more importantly, the "abs" are like a shell, protecting your ribs and vital organs.

Bruce Lee's washboard abs did not come from mere abdominal training; he was also a proponent of cardiovascular conditioning and would regularly run, jump rope and ride a stationary bicycle. A typical excercise Lee would perform would be to run covered a distance of two to six miles in 15 to 45 minutes.

Lee's student, Herb Jackson, remembers another, more unorthodox method Lee used to increase his muscle definition. According to Jackson, Lee would wear a type of sauna belt when riding his stationary bicycle because he believed the belt focused heat on his abdominal muscles and helped reduce fat, due to a misconception of the time that it was possible to "spot reduce".

1964 Long Beach International Karate Championships

At the invitation of Ed Parker, Lee appeared in the 1964 Long Beach International Karate Championship and performed repetitions of two-finger pushups (using the thumb and the index finger) with feet at approximately a shoulder-width apart. In the same Long Beach event he also performed the "one inch punch", the description of which is as follows: Lee stood upright, his right foot forward with knees bent slightly, in front of a standing, stationary partner. Lee's right arm was partly extended and his right fist approximately an inch away from the partner's chest. Without retracting his right arm, Lee then forcibly delivered the punch to his partner while largely maintaining his posture, sending the partner backwards and falling into a chair placed behind the partner to prevent injury.

Nutrition

Another element in Lee's quest for abdominal definition was nutrition. According to Linda Lee, soon after he moved to the United States, Bruce Lee started to take nutrition seriously and developed an interest in health foods and high-protein drinks. "Several times a day, he took a high-protein drink made up of powdered milk, ice water, eggs, eggshells, bananas, vegetable oil, peanut flour and chocolate ice cream," who claims Bruce's waist fluctuated between 26 and 28 inches. "He also drank his own juice concoctions made from vegetables and fruits apples, celery, carrots and so on, prepared in an electric blender."

Bruce Lee ate lean meat sparingly and consumed large amounts of fruits and vegetables. In later years, he became very knowledgeable about vitamin supplements, and each day apportioned himself exactly the right quota of vitamins A, B, C, D, and E.

Death, "by misadventure"

Bruce Lee's death was officially attributed to cerebral edema.

On July 20, 1973, Lee was in Hong Kong, due to have dinner with former James Bond star George Lazenby, with whom he intended to make a film. According to Lee's wife, Linda, Bruce met producer Raymond Chow at 2 pm at home to discuss the making of the movie Game of Death. They worked until 4 pm, and then drove together to the home of Betty Ting Pei, a Taiwanese actress who was to also have a leading role in the film. The three went over the script at her home, and then Chow left to attend a dinner meeting.

A short time later, Lee complained of a headache, and Ting Pei gave him a tablet of analgesic. At around 7:30 pm, he laid down for a nap. After Lee didn't turn up for the dinner, Chow came to the apartment but could not wake Lee up. A doctor was summoned, who spent 10 minutes attempting to revive him before sending him by ambulance to Queen Elizabeth Hospital. However, Lee was dead by the time he reached the hospital. There was no visible external injury; however, his brain had swollen considerably, from 1,400 to 1,575 grams. Lee was 32 years old. On October 15, 2005, Chow stated in an interview that Lee was allergic to equigesic, one of the three ingredients in the pain-killing medication, whose generic name is Flunixin Meglumine. When the doctors announced Bruce Lee's death officially, it was coined as "Death by Misadventure".

Rumors and conspiracy theories

Bruce Lee's iconic status and unusual death at such a young age led many fans to develop theories about Lee's death, including:

  • A literal family curse, commonly reffered to as "Curse of the Dragon," in which a jealous demon kills the successful males in the Lee family, including Lee's father (Lee Hoi Chen), and Lee's son. (This is just one of several variations) This theory is explored in the film Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story, in a dreamlike sequence near the end of the movie pitting the demon against Bruce in battle. Bruce eventually defeats it using his Nunchaku, thus saving his son from the curse. Ironically, Brandon died in a horrible accident the year of the movie's release. Many claim that the demon in the movie was actually a Japanese Oni due to its Samurai-clad appearence. However, it has been brought to attention that in the old days, the Chinese had uniforms similar in appearence. (Note that "Curse of the Dragon" is also the title of a Bruce Lee documentary).
  • That Lee faked his death for various reasons, including to escape publicity, or to embarked on a quest of some sort. One claimed he would reappear in 20 years, but as we can clearly see- this theory has been refuted.
  • That Lee was slain in combat against another Martial Artist- one in particular involving a "Dim mak" or "death-touch".
  • That Lee was killed in a streetfight by common thugs.
  • That Lee strained himself in training to exhaustion and died.
  • Another theory that has surfaced recently is that Lee died of drug-use. (Please note that this is only a theory, not a fact)

Filmography

Lee starred in a leading role in a total of five major films, two of which (Enter the Dragon, Game of Death) premiered after his death.

Released # English title of original Chinese release U.S. title Note
1971 1 The Big Boss Fists of Fury "Plays Chen", fights druglord "The Big Boss" in Thailand.
1972 2 Fist of Fury The Chinese Connection Plays the character "Chen", (not relevant to "The Big Boss"). Fights against Japanese tyrants in Shanghai.
1972 3 Way of the Dragon Return of the Dragon Plays "Tang Lung", fights crime in Rome, Italy. Released after Enter the Dragon in the U.S. hence the title.
1973 4 Enter the Dragon same Plays Shaolin Monk "Mr. Lee" Fights an ex-monk turned drug lord in Hong Kong to avenge his sister.
1979 5 Game of Death same Pieced together [6]. Plays "Billy Lo" He was only in the film for about 11 min, the rest is pieced together after his death.

Note: The U.S. titles for the first two films were swapped by the U.S. distributor. The title The Chinese Connection (a play on the then-recently-released The French Connection) was originally intended for The Big Boss due to the drugs theme of the story.

Yuen Wah, a member of the Seven Little Fortunes, and later to become a well known actor in his own right (notably starring in 2005's Kung Fu Hustle), was Lee's stunt double in Lee's last few films. David Carradine played the characters written for Lee in the 1978 version of The Silent Flute.

Philosophy

Although he is best known as a martial artist and actor, Lee majored in philosophy at the University of Washington. His philosophy often mirrored his fighting beliefs, though he was quick to claim that his martial arts were solely a metaphor for such teachings. His influences include Taoism and Buddhism.

See Wikiquotes for quotes by Lee.

Books authored

Awards and Honors

  • With his ancestral roots coming from Gwan'on in Seundak, Guangdong province of China, a street in the village is named after him where his ancestral home is situated. The home is open for public access.
  • Bruce Lee was named TIME Magazine's 100 Most Important People of the Century and as one of the greatest heroes & icons and among the influential martial artists of the 20th century.
  • The 1993 film Dragon: The Bruce Lee Story is a fictionalized biography of his life.
  • In 2001, LMF, a Cantonese hip-hop group in Hong Kong , released a popular song called "1127" as a tribute to Bruce Lee. The lyrics include: "We only want you to become a Chinese you can be proud of. Learn from others; Need not copy. Use your heart to digest the knowledge of others. Try asking why there are so many failures here who do not support each other and always pretend to be like the other. [Chorus] We had Bruce Lee teach us we are not the disease of Asia. Though having yellow skin, we can still be ourselves. Do not follow, copy, and be like the other. Do not look down upon ourselves.... The spirit of Bruce Lee will never die and the Chinese will never forget that."
  • In 2004, UFC president Dana White credits Bruce Lee as the "father of mixed martial arts"[7].
  • In September 2004, a a BBC story stated that the Herzegovinian city of Mostar was to honour Lee with a statue on the Spanish Square, as a symbol of solidarity. After many years of war and religious splits, Lee's figure is to commend his work: to successfully bridge culture gaps in the world. The statue, placed in the city park, was unveiled on 26 November 2005(One day before the unveiling of the statue in Hong Kong, below).
  • In 2005, Lee is to be remembered in Hong Kong with a bronze statue to mark his 65th birthday. The bronze statue, to be unveiled in November, will honour Lee as "Chinese film's bright star of the century". [8]

Characters based on Lee

Anime and Manga

  • Lee Bailong (Lee Pai-Long) in Shaman King, essentially the manga's version of Bruce. The character was killed so that his body could be made into a Jiang Shi in service to the Tao family.
  • Rock Lee from Naruto, resembles and is a tribute to Bruce Lee (as does his teacher Gai). In the anime and manga, the character is a martial arts master with a similar fighting style as Bruce Lee. Rock Lee is a very spirited taijutsu specialist who is the paragon of hard work and his hobby is hard work. Rock Lee also shares Bruce Lee's birthday of November 27. However, he seems to emulate Jackie Chan as well because he fights more effectively when he's drunk (i.e. Drunken Master)
  • Spike Spiegel from the anime Cowboy Bebop uses the quote "be like water" and fights in a fashion similar to Lee's movie characters. Spike uses the nunchaku as Lee does and shares similar fighting stances. Cowboy Bebop incorporates many elements of Bruce Lee's Jeet Kune Do philosophy. Spike's innate fighting abilities and martial arts style (Jeet Kune Do) were borrowed from martial artist Bruce Lee, whose influence is seen many times in the series. The name of the bounty in the second episode is Abdul Hakim, borrowed from the Bruce Lee film Game of Death that co-starred Kareem Abdul-Jabbar who played a character called "Hakim." On two other separate occasions, Spike also makes mention of both Enter the Dragon and Way of the Dragon, two more Bruce Lee films. The creator of Cowboy Bebop stated that Cowboy Bebop was a tribute to Bruce Lee.
  • Kenshiro from the manga and anime Fist of the North Star got the same famous "cat screech" noise and "atatatah" battle cry whenever Kenshiro is punching his enemies. The creator Tetsuo Hara admits that he is a big fan of Lee's movies and his character Kenshiro is a tribute to Lee.

Video games

Lee is one of the very few actors to have commercially released computer and console videogames named after themselves, not after a character they played.[9] These include

In addition, many fighting games have characters based on Bruce Lee, enough that it has become an archetype within the fighting game genre. Notable examples include:

  • Fei Long in the Street Fighter series,strongly resembles Bruce Lee as do his movements and fighting style. This Bruce lee tribute has been featured in several movies and games.
  • K' (K Dash) and Kula Diamond from King of Fighters 2000/2001, the characters use Bruce Lee's fighting stance and even have a move that imitates Bruce Lee's One Inch Punch, the move is named One Inch.
  • Marshall Law and his son Forest in the Tekken series. In the early Tekken games, one of Marshall's outfits was a yellow jumpsuit.
  • Kim Dragon in the World Heroes series.
  • Liu Kang in the Mortal Kombat series. In the game Mortal Kombat: Deception he fights with the style Jun Fan. Also he uses nunchakus as his weapon.
  • Johnny Cage in Mortal Kombat: Deadly Alliance uses both nunchaku and Jeet Kune Do. He's also known for being a great martial artist and a movie star. His clothing in Deadly Alliance resembles Bruce Lee's clothing.
  • Jann Lee in the Dead or Alive series shares many similarities with and is closely modeled after martial artist Bruce Lee. The character have the same body type as his real-life counterpart; that is, "steely" abdominal muscles. In fact, their personas and attires are almost identical. Also, Jann Lee often yells and whoops in a Bruce Lee-like high pitched voice. The most obvious connection is their actual fighting style. "Light feet" play heavily, with neither staying motionless for more than a second a time. Jann Lee is one of the fastest striking characters in the Dead or Alive video game, with quick, intricate, string combos as well as sudden, hard hitting, jab moves.
  • Maxi in the Soul Calibur series uses Bruce Lee's style of nunchakus and have a similar fighting stance as Bruce Lee.
  • Ling Tong in Dynasty Warriors 5 uses a Nunchaku, moves quickly, and has similar physical characteristics and movements as Bruce Lee.
  • Fei Fong Wong in Xenogears has a similar fighting style, techniques, and stance as Bruce Lee. Fei Fong Wong also wears simlar pants Bruce Lee wore in many of his movies.
  • Reiji in Kakuto Chojin fights using Jeet Kune Do. Reiji's physical appearance also resembles Bruce Lee and wears sunglasses similar to Bruce Lee's
  • In Double Dragon, Billy and Johnny Lee are a tribute to Bruce Lee (the surname Lee is a big give away). In the remake Double Dragon Advance, there are Bruce Lee posters during the China Town level and in the cutscenes Billy and Jimmy looks similar to Lee when angry.
  • When Dante Sparda wields his three-pronged Nunchaku in Devil May Cry 3, his shouts emulate Lee's famous whoops and howls.
  • Jacky Bryant in Virtua Fighter has Jeet Kune Do, listed as his fighting style.
  • In Grand Theft Auto: Liberty City Stories a set of clothing you unlock is the jump suit he wore in Game of Death.
  • In May of 2003, Vicarious Visions/Vivendi Universal Games/Activision released a cinematic video-game venture based on several of Lee's movies, called Bruce Lee: Return of the Legend, in which "the legend" himself plays the revenge-seeking Hai Feng.
  • In 1984 Kung-Fu Master (movie Game of Death)

Film references

  • Not actually a film reference, but the Jack Johnson song "Inaudible Melodies" was inspired by Bruce Lee. The original lyrics were "Slow down Bruce you're moving too fast, frames can't catch you when you're moving like that," instead of "Slow down everyone." Jack Johnson said that in film school, he learned that Bruce was told to slow down his moves because some of his motions were actually too fast to be caught on film.

Further reading

  • Bleeker, Tom Unsettled Matters: The Life & Death of Bruce Lee Gilderoy Pubns. July, 1996. ISBN 0965313204
  • Lee, Linda; Lee, Mike; and Vaughn, Jack. The Bruce Lee Story Ohara Publications. June, 1989. ISBN 0897501217
  • Little, John R. The Warrior Within: The Philosophies of Bruce Lee. McGraw-Hill. April 1, 1996. ISBN 0809231948

List of people influential to Lee's career

See also

Brandon Lee

The Big Boss

Fist of Fury

Way of the Dragon

Enter the Dragon

Game of Death

Footnotes

  1. ^  Chinese Hospital [12] - Radiology 845 Jackson Street, San Francisco, CA 94133.
  2. ^  Lee, Linda. 1989. The Bruce Lee Story Ohara Publications, California. (p.70)
  3. ^  Hatfield, Fredrick C., Ph. D. 1993. Fitness: The Complete Guide. International Sport Sciences Association, California. (p.119)
  4. ^  Wathen, Dan. 1994. Load Assignment. In Essentials of Strength Training and Conditioning. Human Kinetics, Illinois. (p.436)
  5. ^  MobyGames [13]
  6. ^  Dorgan, Michael. Bruce Lee's Toughest Fight [14]. (1980 July). Official Karate (the neutrality of this article is debatable).
  7. ^  Pieced together with the few shots that were filmed before Lee's death in 1973.
  8. ^  Wickert, Marc. 2004. Dana White and the future of UFC. kucklepit.com. See Wikiquotes for the text.

External links

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about:

bs:Bruce Lee ca:Bruce Lee de:Bruce Lee es:Bruce Lee eo:Bruce LEE fi:Bruce Lee fr:Bruce Lee he:ברוס לי it:Bruce Lee ja:ブルース・リー ko:이소룡 nl:Bruce Lee pl:Bruce Lee pt:Bruce Lee ru:Ли, Брюс sr:Брус Ли sv:Bruce Lee tr:Bruce Lee zh:李小龙

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