Czechoslovakia

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Czechoslovakia (Czech: Československo, Slovak: Česko-Slovensko/before 1990 Československo, German: Tschechoslowakei) was a country in Central Europe that existed from 1918 until 1992 (except for the World War II period). On January 1, 1993, it peacefully split into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, in what was known as the Velvet Divorce, by analogy with the Velvet Revolution.

Československo
100px Coat of Arms (see the article)
(In Detail)
</td></tr>

<tr><td align="center" colspan=2 style="border-bottom:3px solid gray;">National motto: (19181989) Pravda vítězí (Czech: Truth prevails)
(19891992) Veritas Vincit
(Latin: Truth prevails)
</td></tr> <tr><td align=center colspan=2>File:LocationCzechoslovakia.png <tr><td>Official languages </td> <td>Czech and Slovak</td></tr> <tr><td>Capital </td><td>Prague</td></tr> <tr><td>Area (1991) </td><td>127,900 km²</td></tr> <tr><td>Population (1991) </td><td>15,600,000
Czechs 54.1%, Slovaks 31%, Moravians 8.7%, Hungarians 3.8%, Gypsies 0.7%</td></tr> <tr><td>Currency </td><td>Czechoslovak crown (Kčs) = 100 halers</td></tr> <tr><td>Time zone </td><td>UTC+1</td></tr> <tr><td>National anthem </td><td>Kde domov můj + Nad Tatrou sa blýska</td></tr> <tr><td>ISO 3166-1 </td><td>CS (obsolete)</td></tr> <tr><td>Internet TLD </td><td>.cs (obsolete, as .cz and .sk were assigned to the two countries resulting from the split)</td></tr> </table>

Contents

Basic characteristics

Form of state:

  • 1918–1968 (except for 1938–1945): a centralized country;
  • 1969–1992: a federal republic consisting of the Czech Socialist Republic (1990–1992: Czech Republic) and the Slovak Socialist Republic (1990–1992: Slovak Republic);

Neighbors: Germany (1945–1990: West Germany and East Germany), Poland, Soviet Union (1992: Ukraine), Romania (until 1939), Hungary, Austria

Topography: Generally irregular terrain. Western area is part of north-central European uplands. Eastern region is composed of northern reaches of Carpathian Mountains and Danube Basin lands.

Climate: Predominantly continental but varied from moderate temperatures of Western Europe in the west to more severe weather systems affecting Eastern Europe and the western Soviet Union in the east.

Official names

  • 1918–1920: Czecho-Slovak Republic or Czechoslovak Republic (abbreviated RČS); short form Czecho-Slovakia or rarely Czechoslovakia
  • 1920–1938 and 1945–1960: Czechoslovak Republic (ČSR [initially abbreviated RČS]); short form Czechoslovakia
  • 1938–1939: Czecho-Slovak Republic; Czecho-Slovakia
  • 1960–1990: Czechoslovak Socialist Republic (ČSSR); Czechoslovakia
  • April 1990: Czechoslovak Federative Republic (Czech version) and Czecho-Slovak Federative Republic (Slovak version),
  • afterwards: Czech and Slovak Federative Republic (ČSFR, with the short forms Czechoslovakia (Czech version) and Czecho-Slovakia (Slovak version))

Coat of arms

1920–1945: [1] small version, [2] middle version, [3] big version
1945–1960: [4]
1960–1990: [5]
1990–1992: [6]


History

Main article: History of Czechoslovakia

Czechoslovakia arose in October 1918 as one of the succession states of Austria-Hungary at the end of World War I. It consisted of the present-day territories of the Czech Republic, Slovakia and (until 1939/29 June 1945) the Carpathian Ruthenia (Carpatho-Ukraine). Its territory included some of the most industrialized regions of the former Austria-Hungary, it was a democratic republic throughout the pre-World War II period, but was characterized by ethnic problems. The ethnic problems were due to the fact that the second and third largest ethnic groups (Germans and Slovaks, respectively) were not satisfied with the political and economic dominance of the Czechs, and that most Germans and Hungarians of Czechoslovakia never really accepted the creation of the new state.

Many Germans, Hungarians and Poles, but also some Slovaks, felt disadvantaged in Czechoslovakia, because the political elite of the country introduced a centralised state and most of the time did not allow political autonomy for the ethnic groups. This policy, combined with increasing Nazi propaganda especially in the industrialised German speaking Sudetenland, led to increasing unrest among the Non-Czech population.

Before WWII, Czechoslovakia became Hitler's target. After the Munich Agreement of 1938, Hitler's troops occupied the ethnic-German border regions of Bohemia and Moravia (the Sudetenland), Hungary received territory in southern Slovakia, and the Slovak and Ruthene regions received an autonomous status for a while. Finally Czechoslovakia ceased to exist in March 1939, when Hitler occupied the remainder of the Bohemian lands and (the remaining) Slovakia was forced to declare independence. During the Second World War the Bohemian lands were designated the Protectorate of Bohemia and Moravia and were ruled directly by the German state. The newly independent Slovak state became an ally of Nazi Germany. Slovakia's troops fought on the Russian front until the summer of 1944, when the Slovak armed forces staged an uprising against their government. German forces crushed this uprising after several months of fighting.

After World War II, pre-war Czechoslovakia was reestablished, all Germans were expelled from the country and Ruthenia was occupied by (and ultimately ceded to) the Soviet Union. Three years later the Communist Party of Czechoslovakia seized power (19481989) following a parliamentary election in which the Communists emerged as the winner and the country came under the influence of the Soviet Union. Except for a short period in the late 1960s (the Prague Spring) the country was characterized by the absence of democracy and relative economic backwardness compared to Western Europe, although its economy remained more advanced than those of its neighbors in Eastern Europe. In the religious sphere, atheism was officially promoted and taught. In 1969, Czechoslovakia was turned into a federation of the Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic. Under the federation, social and economic inequities between the Czech and Slovak halves of the state were largely eliminated.

In 1989, the country became a democratic country again through the Velvet revolution. In 1992, the federal parliament decided to split the country into the Czech Republic and Slovakia, as of January 1, 1993.

From creation to dissolution – Overview

Template:Cs-timeline

Heads of State and Government

International agreements and membership

After WWII, active participant in Council for Mutual Economic Assistance (Comecon), Warsaw Pact, United Nations and its specialized agencies, and Movement of Nonaligned Nations; signatory of conference on Security and Cooperation in Europe

Administrative divisions

Main article: Administrative divisions of Czechoslovakia

  • 19181923: different systems on former Austrian territory (Bohemia, Moravia, small part of Silesia) and on former Hungarian territory (Slovakia and Ruthenia): 3 lands [země] (also called district units [obvody]) Bohemia, Moravia, Silesia + 21 counties [župy] in today's Slovakia + 2? counties in today's Ruthenia; both lands and counties were divided in districts [okresy]
  • 19231927: like above, except that the above counties were replaced by 6 (grand) counties [(veľ)župy] in today's Slovakia and 1 (grand) county in today's Ruthenia, and the number and frontiers of the okresy were changed on these 2 territories
  • 19281938: 4 lands [in Czech: země / in Slovak: krajiny]: Bohemia, Moravia-Silesia, Slovakia and Subcarpathian Ruthenia; divided in districts [okresy]
  • late 1938–March 1939: like above, but Slovakia and Ruthenia were promoted to "autonomous lands"
  • 19451948: like 1928–1938, except that Ruthenia became part of the Soviet Union
  • 19491960: 19 regions [kraje] divided in 270 districts [okresy]
  • 19601992: 10 regions [kraje], Prague, and (since 1970) Bratislava; divided in 109–114 districts [okresy]; the kraje were abolished temporarily in Slovakia in 1969–1970 and for many functions since 1991 in Czechoslovakia; in addition, the two republics Czech Socialist Republic and Slovak Socialist Republic were established in 1969 (without the word Socialist since 1990)

Population and ethnic groups

Main article: Population and Ethnic Groups of Czechoslovakia

Religion

Main article: Religion in Communist Czechoslovakia

In 1991: Roman Catholics 46.4%, Evangelic Lutheran 5.3%, Atheist 29.5%, n/a 16.7%, but there were huge differences between the 2 constituent republics – see Czech Republic and Slovakia

Health, social welfare and housing

Main article: Health and Social Welfare in Communist Czechoslovakia

After WWII, free health care available to all citizens. National health planning emphasized preventive medicine; factory and local health-care centers supplement hospitals and other inpatient institutions. Substantial improvement in rural health care in 1960s and 1970s.

Politics

Main articles: Czechoslovakia: 1918 - 1938 and Politics of Communist Czechoslovakia

After WWII, monopoly on politics held by Communist Party of Czechoslovakia. Gustáv Husák elected first secretary of KSC in 1969 (changed to general secretary in 1971) and president of Czechoslovakia in 1975. Other parties and organizations existed but functioned in subordinate roles to KSC. All political parties, as well as numerous mass organizations, grouped under umbrella of National Front of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic. Human rights activists and religious activists severely repressed

Government

Main article: Government structure of Communist Czechoslovakia

Constitutional development

Czechoslovakia had the following constitutions throughout its history (1918 – 1992):

  • Temporary Constitution of November 14 1918 [democratic], see: Czechoslovakia: 1918 - 1938
  • The 1920 Constitution (The Constitutional Document of the Czechoslovak Republic) [democratic, in force till 1948, several amendments], see: Czechoslovakia: 1918 - 1938
  • The 1948 Constitution (The Ninth-of-May Constitution) [a Communist one]
  • The 1960 Constitution (The Constitution of the Czechoslovak Socialist Republic) [a Communist one till 1989] with amendments in 1968 (Czechoslovakia turned into a federation), 1971, 1975, 1978, 1989 (leading role of the KSC abolished) and several times during 1990-1992 (e. g. 1990 change of the name of Czechoslovakia, 1991 incorporation of the human rights charter)

Society and social groups

Main article: Society of Communist Czechoslovakia

Education

Main article: Education in Czechoslovakia

Education free at all levels and compulsory from age six to sixteen. Vast majority of population literate. Highly developed system of apprenticeship training and vocational schools supplemented general secondary schools and institutions of higher education

Resource base

Main article: Resource base of Communist Czechoslovakia

After WWII, country energy short, relying on imported crude oil and natural gas from Soviet Union, domestic brown coal, and nuclear and hydroelectric energy. Energy constraints a major factor in 1980s.

Economy, foreign trade and financial system

Main articles: Economy of Communist Czechoslovakia and Economic History of Communist Czechoslovakia

After WWII, economy centrally planned with command links controlled by communist party, similar to Soviet Union. Large metallurgical industry but dependent on imports for iron and nonferrous ores.

  • Industry: Extractive and manufacturing industries dominated sector. Major branches included machinery, chemicals, food processing, metallurgy, and textiles. Industry wasteful of energy, materials, and labor and slow to upgrade technology, but country source of high-quality machinery and arms for other communist countries.
  • Agriculture: Minor sector but supplied bulk of food needs. Dependent on large imports of grains (mainly for livestock feed) in years of adverse weather. Meat production constrained by shortage of feed, but high per capita consumption of meat.
  • Foreign Trade: Exports estimated at US$17.8 billion in 1985, of which 55 percent machinery, 14 percent fuels and materials, 16 percent manufactured consumer goods. Imports at estimated US$17.9 billion in 1985, of which 41 percent fuels and materials, 33 percent machinery, 12 percent agricultural and forestry products other. In 1986, about 80 percent of foreign trade with communist countries.
  • Exchange Rate: Official, or commercial, rate Kcs 5.4 per US$1 in 1987; tourist, or noncommercial, rate Kcs 10.5 per US$1. Neither rate reflected purchasing power. The exchange rate on the black market was around Kcs 30 per US$1, and this rate became the official one once the currency became convertible in the early 1990s.
  • Fiscal Year: Calendar year.
  • Fiscal Policy: State almost exclusive owner of means of production. Revenues from state enterprises primary source of revenues followed by turnover tax. Large budget expenditures on social programs, subsidies, and investments. Budget usually balanced or small surplus.

Transportation and communications

Main article: Transportation in Czechoslovakia

Mass media

Main article: Mass media in Communist Czechoslovakia


Sports

The Czechoslovakia national football team was a consistent performer in the international scene, with 8 appearances in the FIFA World Cup Finals, finishing in second-place in 1934 and 1962. The team also won the European Football Championship in 1976.

The Czechoslovakian national ice hockey team has won many medals from the world championships and olympic games.

The famous tennis players Ivan Lendl and Martina Navratilova were born in Czechoslovakia.

Culture

See:

Postage Stamps

Czechoslovakia's first issue [7]

See also

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