Nobel Prize in Chemistry

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This is a list of Nobel Prize laureates in Chemistry from 1901 to the present day. The prize is awarded every year by the Royal Swedish Academy of Sciences.

Year Name Topics
1901 Jacobus Henricus van 't Hoff "for his discovery of the laws of chemical dynamics and osmotic pressure in solutions"
1902 Hermann Emil Fischer "for his work on sugar and purine syntheses"
1903 Svante August Arrhenius "for his electrolytic theory of dissociation (see ion)"
1904 Sir William Ramsay "for his discovery of the inert gaseous elements in air"
1905 Johann Friedrich Wilhelm Adolf von Baeyer "for his work on organic dyes and hydroaromatic compounds"
1906 Henri Moissan "for his investigation and isolation of the element fluorine, and for the electric furnace named after him" See:Moissan electric furnace
1907 Eduard Buchner "for his biochemical research and his discovery of cell-free fermentation"
1908 Sir Ernest Rutherford "for his investigations into the disintegration of the elements, and the chemistry of radioactive substances"
1909 Wilhelm Ostwald "his work on catalysis and for his investigations into chemical equilibria and rates of reaction"
1910 Otto Wallach "for his work in the field of alicyclic compounds"
1911 Marie Sklodowska Curie "for her discovery of radium and polonium, and her study of radium"
1912 Victor Grignard "for his the discovery of the Grignard reagent"
Paul Sabatier "for his method of hydrogenating organic compounds"
1913 Alfred Werner "for his work on the linkage of atoms in molecules"
1914 Theodore William Richards "for his determinations of the atomic weight of a large number of elements"
1915 Richard Martin Willstätter "for his research on plant pigments"
1918 Fritz Haber "for his synthesis of ammonia"
1920 Walther Hermann Nernst "for his work in thermochemistry"
1921 Frederick Soddy "for his work on the chemistry of radioactive substances and investigations into isotopes"
1922 Francis William Aston "for his discovery of isotopes in a large number of non-radioactive elements, and for his whole-number rule"
1923 Fritz Pregl "for his invention of the method of micro-analysis of organic substances"
1925 Richard Adolf Zsigmondy "for his demonstration of the heterogeneous nature of colloid solutions and the methods used"
1926 Theodor Svedberg "for his work on disperse systems"
1927 Heinrich Otto Wieland "for his investigations of the bile acids and related substances"
1928 Adolf Otto Reinhold Windaus "for his research into sterols and their connection with vitamins"
1929 Arthur Harden, Hans Karl August Simon von Euler-Chelpin "for their investigations on the fermentation of sugar and fermentative enzymes"
1930 Hans Fischer "for his research into haemin and chlorophyll"
1931 Carl Bosch, Friedrich Bergius "for their contributions to chemical high pressure methods"
1932 Irving Langmuir "for his work in surface chemistry"
1934 Harold Clayton Urey "for his discovery of heavy hydrogen"
1935 Frédéric Joliot, Irene Joliot-Curie "for their synthesis of new radioactive elements"
1936 Petrus (Peter) Josephus Wilhelmus Debye "for his work on molecular structure through investigations on dipole moments and the diffraction of X-rays and electrons in gases"
1937 Walter Norman Haworth "for his work on carbohydrates and vitamin C"
Paul Karrer "for his work on carotenoids, flavins and vitamins A and B2"
1938 Richard Kuhn "for his work on carotenoids and vitamins"
1939 Adolf Friedrich Johann Butenandt "for his work on sex hormones"
Lavoslav Ružička "for his work on polymethylenes and higher terpenes"
1943 George de Hevesy "for his work on the use of isotopes as tracers to study chemical processes"
1944 Otto Hahn "for his discovery of the fission of heavy nuclei"
1945 Artturi Ilmari Virtanen "for his research and inventions in agricultural and nutrition chemistry, especially for his fodder preservation method"
1946 James Batcheller Sumner "for his discovery that enzymes can be crystallized"
John Howard Northrop, Wendell Meredith Stanley "for their preparation of enzymes and virus proteins in a pure form"
1947 Sir Robert Robinson "for his investigations on plant products, especially the alkaloids"
1948 Arne Wilhelm Kaurin Tiselius "for his research on electrophoresis and adsorption analysis"
1949 William Francis Giauque "for his contributions in the field of chemical thermodynamics"
1950 Otto Paul Hermann Diels, Kurt Alder "for their discovery and development of the diene synthesis. Diels-Alder reaction."
1951 Edwin Mattison McMillan, Glenn Theodore Seaborg "for their discoveries in the chemistry of transuranium elements"
1952 Archer John Porter Martin, Richard Laurence Millington Synge "for their invention of partition chromatography"
1953 Hermann Staudinger "for his discoveries in the field of macromolecular chemistry"
1954 Linus Carl Pauling "for his research into the nature of the chemical bond"
1955 Vincent du Vigneaud "for his work on sulphur compounds, especially the first synthesis of a polypeptide hormone"
1956 Sir Cyril Norman Hinshelwood, Nikolay Nikolaevich Semenov (Никола́й Никола́евич Семёнов) "for their research into the mechanism of chemical reactions"
1957 Sir Alexander Todd "for his work on nucleotides and nucleotide co-enzymes"
1958 Frederick Sanger "for his work on the structure of proteins, especially insulin"
1959 Jaroslav Heyrovský "for his discovery and development of the polarographic methods of analysis"
1960 Willard Frank Libby "for his method to use carbon-14 for age determination"
1961 Melvin Calvin "for his research on carbon dioxide assimilation in plants"
1962 Max Ferdinand Perutz, John Cowdery Kendrew "for their studies of the structures of globular proteins"
1963 Karl Ziegler, Giulio Natta "for their discoveries relating to high polymers"
1964 Dorothy Crowfoot Hodgkin "for her determinations by X-ray techniques of the structures of important biochemical substances"
1965 Robert Burns Woodward "for his achievements in organic synthesis"
1966 Robert Sanderson Mulliken "for his work concerning chemical bonds and the electronic structure of molecules"
1967 Manfred Eigen, Ronald George Wreyford Norrish, George Porter "for their studies of extremely fast chemical reactions"
1968 Lars Onsager "for the discovery of the reciprocal relations bearing his name"
1969 Derek Harold Richard Barton, Odd Hassel "for their contributions to the development of the concept of conformation"
1970 Luis F. Leloir "for his discovery of sugar nucleotides and their role in the biosynthesis of carbohydrates"
1971 Gerhard Herzberg "for his contributions to electronic structure and the geometry of molecules, particularly free radicals"
1972 Christian B. Anfinsen "for his work on ribonuclease"
Stanford Moore, William H. Stein "for their contribution to the understanding of the connection between chemical structure and catalytic activity of the ribonuclease molecule"
1973 Ernst Otto Fischer, Geoffrey Wilkinson "for their work on the chemistry of organometallic compounds"
1974 Paul J. Flory "for his fundamental work, both theoretical and experimental, in the physical chemistry of macromolecules"
1975 John Warcup Cornforth "for his work on the stereochemistry of enzyme-catalyzed reactions"
Vladimir Prelog "for his research into the stereochemistry of organic molecules and reactions"
1976 William Nunn Lipscomb, Jr. "for his studies on the structure of Boranes"
1977 Ilya Prigogine "for his contributions to non-equilibrium thermodynamics"
1978 Peter D. Mitchell "for his formulation of the chemiosmotic theory"
1979 Herbert C. Brown, Georg Wittig "for their development of the use of boron- and phosphorus-containing compounds, respectively, into reagents in organic synthesis"
1980 Paul Berg "for his fundamental studies of the biochemistry of nucleic acids, with particular regard to recombinant-DNA"
Walter Gilbert,Frederick Sanger "for their contributions concerning the determination of base sequences in nucleic acids"
1981 Kenichi Fukui (福井謙一), Roald Hoffmann "for their theories concerning the course of chemical reactions"
1982 Aaron Klug "for his development of crystallographic electron microscopy"
1983 Henry Taube "for his work on the mechanisms of electron transfer reactions"
1984 Robert Bruce Merrifield "for his development of methodology for chemical synthesis on a solid matrix"
1985 Herbert A. Hauptman, Jerome Karle "for their achievements in developing direct methods for the determination of crystal structures"
1986 Dudley R. Herschbach, Yuan T. Lee (李遠哲), John C. Polanyi "for their contributions concerning the dynamics of chemical elementary processes"
1987 Donald J. Cram, Jean-Marie Lehn, Charles J. Pedersen "for their development and use of molecules with structure-specific interactions of high selectivity"
1988 Johann Deisenhofer, Robert Huber, Hartmut Michel "for their determination of the three-dimensional structure of a photosynthetic reaction centre"
1989 Sidney Altman, Thomas R. Cech "for their discovery of catalytic properties of RNA"
1990 Elias James Corey "for his development of the theory and methodology of organic synthesis"
1991 Richard R. Ernst "for his contributions to the development of high resolution nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) spectroscopy"
1992 Rudolph A. Marcus "for his contributions to the theory of electron transfer reactions in chemical systems"
1993 Kary B. Mullis, Michael Smith "for contributions to the developments of methods within DNA-based chemistry"
1994 George A. Olah "for his contribution to carbocation chemistry"
1995 Paul J. Crutzen, Mario J. Molina, F. Sherwood Rowland "for their work in atmospheric chemistry, in particular ozone depletion"
1996 Robert Curl, Sir Harold Kroto, Richard Smalley "for their discovery of fullerenes"
1997 Paul D. Boyer, John E. Walker "for their elucidation of the enzymatic mechanism underlying the synthesis of adenosine triphosphate"
Jens C. Skou "for his discovery of an ion-transporting enzyme, Na+K+-ATPase"
1998 Walter Kohn "for his development of the density functional theory"
John A. Pople "for his development of computational methods in quantum chemistry"
1999 Ahmed H. Zewail "for his studies of the transition states of chemical reactions using femtosecond spectroscopy"
2000 Alan J. Heeger, Alan G MacDiarmid, Hideki Shirakawa (白川英樹) "for their discovery and development of conductive polymers"
2001 William S. Knowles, Ryoji Noyori (野依良治) "for their work on chirally catalysed hydrogenation reactions"
K. Barry Sharpless "for his work on chirally catalysed oxidation reactions"
2002 Kurt Wüthrich, John B. Fenn, Koichi Tanaka (田中耕一) "for their development of methods for identification and structure analyses of biological macromolecules"
2003 Peter Agre, Roderick MacKinnon "for discoveries concerning channels in cell membranes"
2004 Aaron Ciechanover, Avram Hershko and Irwin Rose "for the discovery of ubiquitin-mediated protein degradation"
2005 Robert Grubbs, Richard Schrock and Yves Chauvin "for the development of the metathesis method in organic synthesis"

Reference

See also

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