Richard Nixon

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Template:Infobox President Richard Milhous Nixon (January 9, 1913April 22, 1994) was the 37th President of the United States, serving from 1969 to 1974. He was also the 36th Vice President (19531961) serving under Dwight D. Eisenhower. Nixon redefined the office of Vice President, making it for the first time a high visibility platform and base for a presidential candidacy. He is the only person to have been elected twice to the Vice Presidency and twice to the Presidency, and the only president to have resigned that office. His resignation came in the face of imminent impeachment related to the Watergate scandal.

Nixon is noted for his diplomatic foreign policy, especially détente with the Soviet Union and China, and ending the Vietnam War. He is also noted for his middle-of-the-road domestic policy that combined conservative rhetoric and, in many cases, liberal action, as in his environmental policy.

As president, Nixon imposed wage and price controls, indexed Social Security for inflation, and created Supplemental Security Income (SSI). The number of pages added to the Federal Register each year doubled under Nixon. He advocated gun control and eradicated the last remnants of the gold standard. Nixon created the Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) and Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) and implemented the Philadelphia Plan, the first significant federal affirmative action program.


Contents

Birth and early years

Richard Nixon was born in Yorba Linda, California to Francis Nixon and Hannah Milhous Nixon. He was raised by his mother as an evangelical Quaker. His upbringing is said to have been marked by such conservative evangelical Quaker observances as refraining from drinking, dancing and swearing. His father (known as Frank) was a former member of the Methodist Protestant Church who had sincerely converted to Quakerism but never fully absorbed its spirit, retaining instead a volatile temper.

His father focused on the family business, a store that sold groceries and gasoline. Nixon always spoke highly of his parents. He often spoke lovingly of his mother as a "Quaker saint," and began his memoirs with the words "I was born in a house my father built." Today, the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace has been erected next to the original house in Yorba Linda, which is open to the public; however, Nixon actually grew up some miles away, in Whittier, California. Today, this area is an urban sprawl, but in Nixon's time, it was almost entirely farmland. Nixon was the second of five children, all boys; his brothers were Harold, Donald, Arthur, and Edward. Nixon's early life was marked by tragedy in the deaths of two of these brothers, Arthur and Harold, from tuberculosis.

Nixon attended Fullerton High School from 1926-28 and Whittier High School from 1928-30. He graduated first in his class; showing a penchant for Shakespeare and Latin. He won a full tuition scholarship from Harvard; since it did not cover living expenses, Nixon's family was unable to afford to send him away to college. Nixon attended Whittier College, a local Quaker school where he co-founded the Orthogonian Society, a fraternity that competed with the already established Franklin Society. Nixon was elected student body president. A lifelong football buff, Nixon practiced with the team assiduously but spent most of his time on the bench. In 1934 he graduated second in his class from Whittier and went on to Duke University School of Law, where he received a full scholarship.

Nixon returned to California, passed the bar exam, and began working in the small-town law office of a family friend in nearby La Mirada. The work was mostly routine, and Nixon generally found it to be dull, although he was entirely competent. He later wrote that family law cases caused him particular discomfiture, since his reticent Quaker upbringing was severely at odds with the idea of discussing intimate marital details with strangers.

It was during this period that he met his wife Pat, a high-school teacher; they were married on June 21, 1940. They had two daughters Tricia and Julie.

During World War II, Nixon served as an officer in the Navy. He later stated he hated Hitler and was horrified by the attack on Pearl Harbor.

Nixon in Congress, 1946-52

Nixon was elected to the United States House of Representatives from southern California in 1946 by unseating Democrat Jerry Voorhis, in an aggressive campaign.

File:Pat and Richard Nixon exit US plane.jpg
Richard Nixon with his wife Pat.

The 80th Congress was the first with a Republican majority since the 1930 election and its freshman class was filled with fellow war veterans. Nixon became friends with John F. Kennedy of Massachusetts.

Nixon served on a committee that helped to implement the Marshall Plan which aided war-torn Europe. He also helped in the passage of the Taft-Hartley Act which set up controls over labor unions. He proposed a bill to facilitate servicemen's voting that was passed by both houses and signed into law. He became a member of the House Un-American Activities Committee. Nixon presented testimony of Whittaker Chambers alleging that senior Roosevelt aide Alger Hiss was a traitor who had spied for the Soviet Union. Nixon was now a leading national figure and he easily won re-election in 1948.

Nixon was elected to the United States Senate in 1950, defeating congresswoman Helen Gahagan Douglas, whom Nixon accused during the campaign of having left-wing sympathies, calling her the "Pink Lady." In the campaign the Independent Review newspaper tagged Nixon with a nickname he would never shake: "Tricky Dick". As with Voorhis, Nixon used the tactic of showing his opponent had voted the same way as the congressman furthest to the left, avowed Socialist and American Laborite Vito Marcantonio.

Vice Presidency

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Nixon and Eisenhower at a 1952 Campaign stop

In 1952 he was elected Vice President on Dwight D. Eisenhower's ticket, although he was only 39 years old.

One notable event of the campaign was Nixon's innovative use of television. Nixon was accused by nameless sources of misappropriating money out of a business fund for personal use. He went on TV and defended himself in an emotional speech, where he provided an independent third-party review of the fund's accounting along with a personal summary of his finances, which he cited as exonerating him from wrongdoing, and he charged that the Democratic Presidential candidate, Adlai Stevenson, also had a slush fund (see Memoirs of Richard Nixon, page 99). This speech would, however, become better known for its rhetoric, such as when he stated that his wife Pat did not wear mink, but rather "a respectable Republican cloth coat," and that although he had been given a cocker spaniel named "Checkers" in addition to his other campaign contributions, he was not going to give it back because his daughters loved it. As a result, this speech became known as the "Checkers speech" and it resulted in a flood of support, prompting Eisenhower to keep Nixon on the ticket.

Nixon reinvented the office of Vice-President. Although he had no formal power, he had the attention of the media and the Republican party. He demonstrated for the first time that the office could be a springboard to the White House; most Vice Presidents since have followed his lead and sought the presidency (an exception being Nelson Rockefeller). Nixon was the first Vice President to actually step in to temporarily run the government. He did that three times when Eisenhower was ill: on the occasions of Eisenhower's heart attack on September 24, 1955; his ileitis in June 1956; and his stroke in November 1957. His quick thinking was on display on July 24, 1959, at the opening of the American National Exhibition in Moscow where he and Soviet leader Nikita Khrushchev had an impromptu "kitchen debate" about the merits of capitalism versus communism.

1960 election and post-Vice Presidency

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Vice President Nixon, right, and Senator John Kennedy during their TV debate prior to the 1960 presidential election

In 1960, he ran for President on his own but lost to John F. Kennedy. The race was very close all year long, and any number of small episodes could have tilted the results one way or the other, including the televised debates. Nixon campaigned on his experience, but Kennedy said it was time for new blood and suggested the Eisenhower-Nixon administration had been soft on defense.

In 1962, Nixon lost a race for Governor of California. In his concession speech, Nixon accused the media of favoring his opponent Pat Brown, and stated that it was his "last press conference" and that "You won't have Dick Nixon to kick around any more."

Presidency

Nixon's post-election defeatist mood did not last. He moved to New York City where he became a well-paid senior partner in a leading law firm, Nixon Mudge Rose Guthrie & Alexander. During the 1966 Congressional elections, he stumped the country in support of Republican candidates, rebuilding his base in the party. In the election of 1968, he completed a remarkable political comeback by taking the nomination. Nixon appealed to what he called the "silent majority" of socially conservative Americans who disliked the "hippie" counterculture and anti-war demonstrators. Nixon promised "peace with honor," and without claiming to be able to win the war, Nixon claimed that "new leadership will end the war and win the peace in the Pacific". He did not explain his plans to end the war in Vietnam, leading Hubert H. Humphrey and the media to allege that he must have some "secret plan." Nixon didn't invent the phrase, but he also did not disavow the term, and it soon became a part of the campaign. He defeated Humphrey and George Wallace to become the 37th President of the United States.


Once in office he proposed the Nixon Doctrine to establish a strategy of turning over the fighting of the war to the Vietnamese. In July 1969 he visited South Vietnam, and met with President Nguyen Van Thieu and with U.S. military commanders. American involvement in the war declined steadily until all American troops were gone in 1971. After the withdrawal of U.S. troops, fighting was left to the South Vietnamese army, which was well supplied with modern arms, but whose fighting capability was in question due to an inadequate funding, low morale, and corruption. The lack of funding was primarily due to large funding cutbacks by the US Congress.

Nixon ordered secret bombing campaign in Cambodia in March, 1969 (code-named Menu) to destroy what were believed to be the headquarters and large numbers of soldiers of the National Front for the Liberation of Vietnam.

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President Nixon greets released POW (and future Republican Senator) Navy officer John McCain (on crutches) after years of imprisonment in North Vietnam, 1973.

In ordering the bombings, Nixon realized he would be extending an unpopular war as well as breaching Cambodia's "official" (but false) neutrality. During deliberations over Nixon's impeachment, his unorthodox use of executive powers over the ordering of these bombings were considered as an article of impeachment, but the charge was dropped as not a violation of Constitutional powers.

On the morning of July 20, 1969, Nixon addressed Neil Armstrong and Buzz Aldrin during their historic moonwalk, live via radio. On January 5, 1972 Nixon approved the development of the Space Shuttle program, a decision that profoundly influenced U.S. efforts to explore and develop space for several decades thereafter.

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President Nixon greets Chinese Communist Party Chairman Mao (left) in China visit 1972

The 60's were a period of detente between the Western and Eastern Blocs. That changed dramatically by the early 70s. In 1960, the People's Republic of China ended the alliance with its biggest ally, the USSR, in the Sino-Soviet Split. As tensions between the two communist nations reached its peak in 1969 and 1970, Nixon decided to use their conflict to shift the balance of power towards the West in the Cold War. In what later would be known as the "China Card", Nixon deliberately improved relations with China in order to blackmail the Soviet Union. In 1971 a move was made to improve relationships when China invited an American table tennis team to China; hence the term "ping-pong" diplomacy. The US’s response was to support China’s entry into the U.N., something it had always vetoed. In October 1971, China entered the U.N. In 1972, Richard Nixon became the first US president to visit "Red" China though the USA kept a massive naval fleet off of Taiwan. Fearing the possibility of a Sino-American alliance, the Soviet Union yielded to Nixon immediately. The first Strategic Arms Limitation Talks were finally concluded the same year.

Concerning South America, Nixon supported the wave of military "golpes de Estado" that took on the continent. With Henry Kissinger, he gave at least an implicit help to Augusto Pinochet's coup, in 1973, and then helped set up operation Condor, as have shown the CIA documents released in 2000, following Pinochet's arrest in 1998. A US-intelligence base in Panama Canal coordinated the acts of the various Latino secret services (Chilean DINA, Venezuelan DISIP, etc.)


In 1972 Nixon was re-elected in one of the biggest landslide election victories in U.S. political history, defeating George McGovern and garnering over 60% of the popular vote. He carried 49 of the 50 states, trailing only in Massachusetts.

On January 2, 1974, Nixon signed a bill that lowered the maximum U.S. speed limit to 55 MPH (90 km/h) in order to conserve gasoline during the 1973 energy crisis. This law remained in effect until the late 1980s.

He established the EPA on December 2, 1970.

On April 3, 1974, Nixon announced he would pay $432,787.13 in back taxes plus interest after a Congressional committee reported that he had inadvertently underpaid his 1969 and 1972 taxes.

In light of the near certainty of both his impeachment by the House of Representatives and his conviction by the Senate, Nixon resigned on August 9, 1974.

Cabinet

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Official Portrait of President Richard Nixon.
OFFICE NAME TERM
President Richard Nixon 1969–1974
Vice President Spiro T. Agnew 1969–1973
  Gerald R. Ford 1973–1974
State William P. Rogers 1969–1973
  Henry A. Kissinger 1973–1974
Treasury David M. Kennedy 1969–1971
  John B. Connally 1971–1972
  George P. Shultz 1972–1974
  William E. Simon 1974
Defense Melvin R. Laird 1969–1973
  Elliot L. Richardson 1973–1973
  James R. Schlesinger 1973–1974
Justice John N. Mitchell 1969–1972
  Richard G. Kleindienst 1972–1973
  Elliot L. Richardson 1973–1974
  William B. Saxbe 1974
Postmaster General Winton M. Blount 1969–1974
Interior Walter J. Hickel 1969–1971
  Rogers C. B. Morton 1971–1974
Agriculture Clifford M. Hardin 1969–1971
  Earl L. Butz 1971–1974
Commerce Maurice H. Stans 1969–1972
  Peter George Peterson 1972–1973
  Frederick B. Dent 1973–1974
Labor George P. Shultz 1969–1970
  James D. Hodgson 1970–1973
  Peter J. Brennan 1973–1974
HEW Robert H. Finch 1969–1970
  Elliot L. Richardson 1970–1973
  Caspar W. Weinberger 1973–1974
HUD George Romney 1969–1973
  James T. Lynn 1973–1974
Transportation John A. Volpe 1969–1973
  Claude S. Brinegar 1973–1974


Supreme Court appointments

Nixon appointed the following Justices to the Supreme Court of the United States:

Nixon also made the following unsuccessful Supreme Court nominations:

Major initiatives

Watergate

Main article: Watergate scandal
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Nixon's letter of resignation
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Nixon departing the White House on August 9, 1974

In October 1972, the Washington Post reported the FBI had determined Nixon aides had spied on and sabotaged numerous Democratic presidential candidates as a part of the operations that led to the infamous Watergate scandal. During the campaign five burglars were arrested on June 17, 1972 in the Democratic Party headquarters at the Watergate office complex. They were subsequently linked to the White House. This became one of a series of major scandals involving the Committee to Re-Elect the President (known as CRP but referred to by outsiders as CREEP), including the White House enemies list and assorted "dirty tricks." The ensuing Watergate scandal exposed the Nixon administration's rampant corruption, illegality, and deceit. Nixon himself downplayed the scandal as mere politics, but when his aides resigned in disgrace, Nixon's role in ordering an illegal cover-up came to light in the press, courts, and congressional investigations. Nixon evaded taxes, accepted illicit campaign contributions, ordered secret bombings, and harassed opponents with executive agencies, wiretaps, and break-ins. Vice President Spiro Agnew resigned in October 1973 for accepting bribes, but Nixon hung on to power, claiming, "I'm not a crook." His secret recordings of White House conversations were subpoenaed, and revealed details of his complicity in the cover-up. Nixon was named by the grand jury investigating Watergate as "an unindicted co-conspirator" in the Watergate Scandal. He lost support from some in his own party as well as much popular support after what became known as the Saturday Night Massacre of October 20, 1973 in which he ordered Archibald Cox, the special prosecutor in the Watergate case fired, as well as firing several of his own subordinates who objected to this move. The House Judiciary Committee opened formal and public impeachment hearings against Nixon on May 9, 1974. Despite his efforts, one of the secret recordings, known as the "smoking gun" tape, was released on August 5, 1974 and revealed that Nixon authorized hush money to Watergate burglar E. Howard Hunt, and also revealed that Nixon arranged for the blackmailing of the CIA into telling the FBI to stop investigating certain topics because of "the Bay of Pigs thing." Several of the Watergate burglars were involved in the Bay of Pigs operation. Haldeman would later claim that when Nixon used the phrase "the Bay of Pigs thing," he was actually referring to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy. In light of his loss of political support and the near certainty of both his impeachment by the House of Representatives and his conviction by the Senate, he resigned on August 9, 1974, after addressing the nation on television the previous evening. Template:Audio He never admitted wrongdoing, though he later conceded errors of judgment. Had he not resigned, he would assuredly have been the second American president to be impeached, after Andrew Johnson a hundred years earlier.

On September 8, 1974 a blanket pardon from President Gerald R. Ford, who served as Nixon's second vice president, effectively ended any possibility of indictment. The pardon was highly controversial and Nixon's critics claimed that the blanket pardon was quid pro quo for his resignation. No evidence of this "corrupt bargain" has ever been proven, and many modern historians dismiss any claims of overt collusion between the two men concerning the pardon. The pardon hurt Ford politically, and it is one of the major reasons cited for Ford's defeat in the election of 1976.

Later years and death

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(Left to right:) Presidents Gerald Ford, Richard Nixon, George H. W. Bush, Ronald Reagan, and Jimmy Carter at the dedication of the Reagan Presidential Library. This was the first gathering of five presidents in one place at the same time.
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Nixon in Russia, 1994.

In his later years Nixon worked to rehabilitate his public image, and enjoyed considerably more success than could have been anticipated at the time of his resignation. He gained great respect as an elder statesman in the area of foreign affairs, being consulted by both Democratic and Republican successors to the Presidency.

Further tape releases, however, removed all doubt as to Nixon's involvement both in the Watergate cover-up and also the illegal campaign finances and intrusive government surveillance that were at the heart of the scandal.

Nixon wrote many books after his departure from politics, including his memoirs.

On April 18, 1994, Nixon, 81, suffered a major stroke, and died four days later on April 22. He was buried beside his wife Pat Nixon (who had died ten months earlier, on June 22, 1993, of lung cancer) on the grounds of the Richard Nixon Library & Birthplace in Yorba Linda, California.

President Bill Clinton, former secretary of state Henry Kissinger, Senate Majority Leader Bob Dole and California Republican Governor Pete Wilson spoke at the April 27 funeral; also in attendance were former presidents Gerald Ford, Jimmy Carter, Ronald Reagan, George H. W. Bush and their respective first ladies. Nixon was survived by his two daughters, along with his four grandchildren.

The Nixon Library contains only Nixon's pre- and post-presidential papers, as his presidential papers have been retained as government evidence. Nixon's attempts to protect his papers and gain tax advantages from them had been one of the important themes of the Watergate affair. Due to disputes over the papers, the library is privately funded and does not, like the other presidential libraries, receive support from the National Archives.

Media

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Quotations

Wikiquote has a collection of quotations by or about:

  • "You won't have Dick Nixon to kick around anymore. Because, gentlemen, this is my last press conference." 1962 after losing the race for Governor of California.
  • "This is the greatest week in the history of the world since the Creation, because as a result of what happened in this week, the world is bigger, infinitely." (concerning the Apollo Moon landing)

Foreign Policy

  • "People react to fear, not love- they don't teach that in Sunday School, but it's true." (concerning fear and paranoia in the Cold War)
  • "No event in American history is more misunderstood than the Vietnam War. It was misreported then, and it is misremembered now." (1985 looking back at the Vietnam War)

On his secret war in Cambodia even after it became public knowledge. "Publicly, we say one thing....Actually, we do another."[1]

On Watergate

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Presidents Ford, Carter, Reagan, Bush, and Clinton watched over Nixon's funeral in 1994. He was the first president to die since Lyndon Johnson in the 70's while Nixon was still president.
  • "When you get in these people when you...get these people in, say: "Look, the problem is that this will open the whole, the whole Bay of Pigs thing, and the President just feels that" ah, without going into the details... don't, don't lie to them to the extent to say there is no involvement, but just say this is sort of a comedy of errors, bizarre, without getting into it, "the President believes that it is going to open the whole Bay of Pigs thing up again. And, ah because these people are plugging for, for keeps and that they should call the FBI in and say that we wish for the country, don't go any further into this case", period!" The 'smoking gun tape' on June 23, 1972. Nixon was telling Haldeman to tell the CIA to stop the FBI investigation, by telling the CIA that it would 'open the whole Bay of Pigs thing.' Haldeman did give Nixon's order to the CIA's Richard Helms, who exploded into a rage of fury when told, according to Haldeman. Haldeman would later write that Nixon used the expression 'the Bay of Pigs thing' when he was referring to the assassination of President John F. Kennedy.
  • "I want to say this to the television audience. I made my mistakes, but in all of my years of public life, I have never profited, never profited from public service. I have earned every cent. And in all of my years of public life, I have never obstructed justice. And I think, too, that I can say that in my years of public life, that I welcome this kind of examination because people have got to know whether or not their President's a crook. Well, I'm not a crook. I've earned everything I've got." November 17, 1973 Televised press conference with 400 Associated Press Managing Editors at Walt Disney World, Florida, Nixon summarized his responses to journalists' questions regarding speculation and criticism of his personal finances and the Watergate scandal.
  • "I don't give a shit what happens. I want you all to stonewall it, let them plead the Fifth Amendment, cover up or anything else, if it'll save it, save this plan. That's the whole point. We're going to protect our people if we can." (to Haldeman, tapes ordered released for the trial of Haldeman, Ehrlichman and Mitchell)
  • "I recognize that this additional material I am now furnishing may further damage my case," (after the ordered release of the White House tapes August 5 1974)
  • "When the President does it, that means that it's not illegal." (explaining his interpretation of Executive Privilege to interviewer David Frost)
  • "I was under medication when I made the decision not to burn the tapes."
  • "Well, I screwed it all up real good, didn't I?"
  • "The greatness comes not when things go always good for you, but the greatness comes and you are really tested, when you take some knocks, some disappointments, when sadness comes, because only if you have been in the deepest valley can you ever know how magnificent it is to be on the highest mountain... Always remember, others may hate you. Those who hate you don't win unless you hate them. And then you destroy yourself." Farewell to White House staff August 8 1974.
  • "I think that the ability of the American people to review all that there is to know about their president using a microscope is wonderful. Still, I think some people get a little carried away when they take out their proctoscopes." (regarding the intense scrutiny which he was forced to endure.)

On peace

  • "Any nation that decides the only way to achieve peace is through peaceful means is a nation that will soon be a piece of another nation." (from his book No More Vietnams)
  • "The greatest honor history can bestow is the title of peacemaker." (From his 1969 inaugural; later used as Nixon's epitaph)

Miscellaneous

  • "Sock it to me?" (cameo on the television comedy series Laugh-In)
  • "I don't know a lot about politics, but I do know a lot about baseball."
  • "Solutions are not the answer."
  • "I would have made a good pope."
  • "Let me say this about that."
  • "cookie pushers and faggots in striped pants", referring to the Peace Corps and the State Dept. Foreign Service
  • "McCarthy goes after Communists with a shotgun; I go after them with a rifle."
  • "We are all Keynesians now."
  • "In all the decisions I have made in my public life, I have always tried to do what was best for the nation. I have never been a quitter."
  • "We did not live on the wrong side of the tracks, but we could hear the whistle real loud!"
  • "I know that you believe you understand what you think I said, but I'm not sure you realize that what you heard is not what I meant."


Nixon's image and media portrayals

Nixon's career was frequently dogged by Nixon's personality, and the public perception of it. Editorial cartoonists such as Herblock and comedians had fun exaggerating Nixon's appearance and mannerisms, to the point where the line between the human and the caricature version of him became increasingly blurred. He was often portrayed as a sullen loner, with unshaven jowls, slumped shoulders, and a furrowed, sweaty brow. He was also characterized as the very epitome of a "square" and the personification of unpleasant adult authority. Nixon tried to shed these perceptions by staging photo-ops with young people, and even cameo appearances on popular TV shows such as Laugh-In and Hee Haw (before he was president). He also frequently brandished the two-finger V sign (alternately viewed as the "Victory sign" or "peace sign") using both hands, an act which became one of his best-known trademarks. Once the transcripts of the White House tapes were released, people were shocked at the amount of swearing and vicious comments about opponents that Nixon issued. This did not help the public perception, and fed the comedians even more. Nixon's sense of being persecuted by his "enemies," his grandiose belief in his own moral and political excellence, and his committment to utilize ruthless power at all costs led some experts to describe him as having a narcissistic and paranoid personality.[2] During the Watergate Scandal, Nixon's approval rating had fallen to 25%.

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Nixon meets Elvis Presley in December 1970
  • The book and movie All the President's Men tell Woodward and Bernstein's story of the Watergate affair.
  • Best-selling historian-author Stephen Ambrose wrote a three-volume biography (Nixon: The Education of a Politician 1913-1962, Nixon: The Triumph of a Politician, 1962-1972, Nixon: Ruin and Recovery 1973-1990) considered the definitive work among many Nixon biographies. The detailed accounts were mostly favorably regarded by both liberal and conservative reviewers.
  • Conservative author Victor Lasky published a book in 1977 called It Didn't Start With Watergate. The book points out that past presidents may have used wiretaps and engaged in other activities that Nixon was accused of, but were never pursued by the press or the subject of impeachment hearings.
  • Chuck Colson gives an insider account of the Watergate affair in Born Again.
  • H.R. Haldeman also provides an insider's perspective in the books The Ends of Power and The Haldeman Diaries: Inside the Nixon White House
  • The movie Nixon directed by Oliver Stone.
  • Nixon in China is an opera dealing with Nixon's visit there.

Nixon in popular culture

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Richard Nixon participating in Whacking Day on The Simpsons
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Richard Nixon's head on Futurama

Because of his place in American culture as a controversial President, Richard Nixon has appeared as a character (with varying degrees of verisimilitude), both major and minor, in a variety of fiction.

Trivia

The first Kennedy-Nixon debate took place on April 21, 1947, when Democratic Congressman Frank Buchanan selected freshman congressmen Nixon and John F. Kennedy to debate the Taft-Hartley Act at a public meeting.

On June 14, 1959, Vice-President Nixon and his family inaugurated the Disneyland Monorail System, the first daily operating monorail in the western hemisphere.

On December 28, 1968, Julie Nixon (Richard's daughter) and David Eisenhower (Dwight's grandson) were married.

From January 22, 1973, when his predecessor Lyndon Johnson died, until his resignation on August 9, 1974, Nixon was the only living current or former President.

See also

For more related articles see Category:Richard Nixon.

Reference

Primary sources

  • Nixon, Richard. (1978). RN: The Memoirs of Richard Nixon (Reprint). Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671707418.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1962). Six Crises. Doubleday. ISBN 0385001258.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1980). Real War. Sidgwich Jackson. ISBN 0283986506.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1982). Leaders. Random House. ISBN 0446512494.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1987). No More Vietnams. Arbor House Publishing. ISBN 0877956685.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1988). 1999: Victory Without War. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671627120.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1990). In the Arena: A Memoir of Victory, Defeat, and Renewal. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671723189.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1992). Seize The Moment: America's Challenge In A One-Superpower World. Simon & Schuster. ISBN 0671743430.
  • Nixon, Richard. (1994). Beyond Peace. Random House. ISBN 0679433236.

Scholarly secondary sources

External links

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